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Emerging evidence is directing cardiologists toward a new target in the fight to prevent atherosclerosis: inflammation. Multiple independent pathways of evidence now pinpoint inflammation as a key regulatory process that links multiple risk factors for atherosclerosis and its complications with altered arterial biology. Science is also changing doctors’ understanding of the precise role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and some smaller forms of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein in cardiovascular disease. For example, even modest increases in triglycerides may alter the relationship between LDL cholesterol and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk.